Plant Sci. Plant Biol. Flowering frequency (%) was determined as the percentage of reproductive shoot density to total shoot density. Mar. Zostera marina: In Zostera marina, the pollen grains are elongated (up to 2,500 mm), like a needle and without exine. Values are mean ± SD (N = 3 cores per site). The water temperature averaged 3.37 ± 2.81°C at S1, 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2, and 6.53 ± 2.42°C at HQB in winter. However, there is only a low incidence of Z. capricorni flowering at Ellie Point (September and October), northern Queensland (McKenzie, 1994). Mar. They have similar specific gravity as that of water; thus float beneath the surface of the water. The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. 686, 118–130. PubMed:Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina. Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? Seasonal changes in the reproductive shoot densities (A), reproductive shoot height (B), flowering frequency (C), and reproductive effort (D) of Zostera japonica at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. J. Exp. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Factors that affect the phenology of plants are genes, photoperiod, temperature and precipitation (Forrest and Miller-Rushing, 2010). Jeanine L. Olsen, James A. Coyer, Bryant Chesney, Numerous mitigation transplants of the eelgrass Zostera marina in southern California shuffle genetic diversity and may promote hybridization with Zostera pacifica, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.001, 176, (133-143), (2014). During the flowering periods in 2018, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected semimonthly at the four sites. The negative accumulated temperature was −14.60°C at S1, −37.46°C at S2, and 0°C at HQB. (1999). Log in. 60, 449–469. Sci. Thus, the SLL and HQB populations differed in flowering phenology. Population genetics of hydrophilous angiosperms. Aquat. J. Exp. Mar. PLoS One 9:e92982. Syesis 12, 147–154. The dispersion and capture of differently shaped particles within a Zostera marina L. (eelgrass; Zosteraceae) bed were examined to understand submarine pollination and other dispersals. Ecol. (1984). doi: 10.2307/2399370, Marba, N., and Walker, D. I. Thus, a core was the sample in all the statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD. The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. Qin et al. form seed banks of small seeds with hard shells that can remain dormant for long periods; whereas other species, such as Posidonia spp. (2018). doi: 10.3354/meps342105, Lee, S., Ma, S., Lim, Y., Choi, H. K., and Shin, H. (2004). Trans. Front. doi: 10.1139/b79-312, Harrison, P. G. (1991). Reproductive strategies in intertidal populations of 2 co-occurring seagrasses (Zostera spp). Zostera marina L. Sp. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. doi: 10.1071/PC000251, Keddy, C. J., and Patriquin, D. G. (1978). At HQB, the reproductive effort was greatest in July during 2018 (31.96% ± 11.97% at H1 and 26.46% ± 25.10 at H2) and 2019 (51.90% ± 13.24% at H1 and 17.98% ± 5.77% at H2). Thus, at SLL, the Z. japonica meadow is almost bare in winter owing to the lower temperature, while Z. japonica survives the winter well at HQB. From June to December 2019, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected monthly at the four sites. Zostera marina L. (Zosteraceae; marine eelgrass) relies on clonal growth and sexual reproduction [18, 19]. 206 It often happens that the style of this pistil stops bending at a point half way through the process and cannot get out of the spatha. 638, 65–81. The reproductive effort (%) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot biomass to total shoot biomass. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.03.004, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., Zhao, P., Yue, S. D., et al. Blok, S. E., Olesen, B., and Krause-Jensen, D. (2018). There were no significant differences in the maximum number of female flowers per flowering spathe among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 6.354, p > 0.05; Figure 7A]. Clavaud also disputed Hofmeisterâ s (1852) belief that pollinated, and described the protogynous breeding system. Total Environ. It has regular semidiurnal tides (tidal range = 4.8 m). For each sample, the total number of shoots (including reproductive and vegetative shoots) was recorded to provide shoot density (shoots ⋅ m–2). The winter at SLL is relatively cold, and on the coldest days the lagoon is covered with ice. (1999). Change Biol. Mar. Additionally, understanding the differences in Z. japonica reproductive strategies at large spatial scales is essential for the conservation and management of this species. 23, 3474–3483. However, we found hardly any seed coat in HQB, which indicates that seeds had disappeared. An understanding of the process of submarine pollination should provide insight into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the marine angiosperms (seagrasses). XZ, SX, YuZ, PZ, and XW prepared materials and carried out the experiments. In addition, the maximum height of reproductive shoots at S1 was lower than at HQB, while the maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot at S1 was higher than at HQB. Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA. J. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. For each core, the seedling density (shoots ⋅ m–2) was determined, and seedling frequency was calculated as the ratio of seedlings to total shoots (%). Mag. We would like to thank Kai Xiao and Gang Li for the help in the field survey, and Mingjie Liu, Yongliang Qiao, and Jingchun Sun for the assistance during the laboratory experiments. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature during winter. Therefore, effective management programs and active restoration work are becoming increasingly important (Zhou et al., 2014; Unsworth et al., 2015; Cullen-Unsworth and Unsworth, 2016; van Katwijk et al., 2016; Lefcheck et al., 2017). Seagrasses are submerged marine angiosperms capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. doi: 10.2307/1943015, Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X. M., Gu, R. T., Liu, X. J., et al. doi: 10.1007/bf03030519, Lefcheck, J. S., Wilcox, D. J., Murphy, R. R., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. 162:105082. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105082, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. Biol. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. The number of viable seeds with hard pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank density (seeds ⋅ m–2). For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions The SSL (Figure 1; 122°34′E, 37°21′N) is located east of Weihai City, northern China. Status: scarce The most truly marine of the Zostera species, this is essentially a sub-tidal plant, extending from slightly above low water of spring tides to a depth of about 4 metres on British coasts but 10 metres in the Mediterranean, depending on the clarity of the water (Tutin 1942). Ask your question. Rasheed (1999) found that the recolonization of artificially cleared plots in a seagrass meadow dominated by Zostera capricorni occurred principally by asexual growth from surrounding rhizomes. Mar. Mo. Mar. Lond. |, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.574790, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 532, 123–136. A microsatellite marker-based study reported that clonal growth is important in the maintenance of Posidonia oceanica populations (Procaccini and Mazzella, 1998). Biomechanical aspects of submarine pollination in Zostera marina L. PhD dissertation, Cornell University. H1 was located in a non-continuous Z. japonica patch area, while H2 was located in the species’ continuous area. Pollut. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13623, Les, D. H. (1988). (2018) reported that Z. marina reproductive shoots appeared later in the colder regions. (2015). Winter was relatively colder at SLL, and ice formed on the water surface on the coldest days. : In situ submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica 309 (Ackerman 1983, 1986). Ecol. Biol. During the flowering periods, there were differences in the allocation to sexual reproduction at the four study sites. Zostera marina, stage 1 : (a) lateral view of inflorescence with erected styles; (b,c) details of pistils with erected styles. The sediment cores were sieved twice using 2 and 0.7 mm and mesh. Any data collected at the shoot level (i.e., reproductive shoot height and number of spathes per reproductive shoot), as well as data collected at the spathe level (i.e., seeds per seed spathe) were first averaged to generate core-specific numbers. In 2019, reproductive shoots were recorded in the early June at HQB (Figure 5B). A mixed mode of submarine and surface hydrophilous pollination occurs in the seagrass Zostera marinaL. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.1.10, Kuo, J., and Den Hartog, C. (2006). Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. Biodivers. The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because the follow-up research is still in progress. Conserv. Mar. The study provides fundamental information and guidance for the conservation and restoration of seagrass beds. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12637, Duffy, J. E. (2006). Thus, in addition to direct interception on stigmas, filamentous pollen can be captured while they rotate past flowers or when they are redirected through the velocity gradient towards flowers. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). Bot. J. Bot. doi: 10.3354/meps11335, Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Tanaka, N., and Kunii, H. (2013). (1996). Temperature is a main influencing factor for many plant growth processes, and in many cases, higher temperatures accelerate plant growth, leading to an earlier progression to the next stage (Saxe et al., 2001; Badeck et al., 2004). Seedling recruitment was investigated using the same cores described above. The sediment of the bay is mainly sandy and two seagrass species (Z. marina and Z. japonica) colonize the southeastern corner of this bay (Xu S. et al., 2018). A number of morphological adaptations, such as filiform pollen and erect bifurcated stigmata, increase chances of successful subaqueous pollination, and thus, sexual reproduction Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 154. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.016, Unsworth, R. K. F., Williams, B., Jones, B. L., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2017). Aust. Gard. The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental conditions (Rasheed, 2004; Xu S. et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2020b). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Temperature characteristics in seed germination and growth of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Central Japan. In this study, we report the differences in reproductive strategies of Z. japonica under different geographic and environmental conditions in northern China. No seedlings were found in situ at HQB. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. As important habitat-formers, seagrasses are the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems worldwide (Costanza et al., 1997; Duffy, 2006; York et al., 2015). The reproductive effort at S1 was greatest in September during 2018 (55.31% ± 10.26%) and 2019 (38.08% ± 8.99%). Thus, the population of Z. japonica at HQB was maintained by asexual reproduction. It is usually assumed that the recruitment of seagrass populations occurs mainly through asexual reproduction (Williams, 1990; Procaccini and Mazzella, 1998; Rasheed, 2004). doi: 10.3354/meps09386, Robertson, A. I., and Mann, K. H. (1984). Bot. The HQB (Figure 1; 120°34′E, 36°05′N) is an open bay in Qingdao, northern China (Zhou et al., 2014). Does the eelgrass meadow influence the macrobenthic community structure in Swan Lake, Northern China? Our study will provide basic information to clarify the roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in population recruitment and to establish restoration and conservation strategies. Here, we studied the reproductive strategies of different geographic Zostera japonica populations, S1 and S2 at Swan Lake lagoon (SLL), and H1 and H2 at Huiquan Bay (HQB), in northern China. The significance levels of the differences in total shoot density and biomass among the sampling times and the four sites were tested using a two-way ANOVA. Thus, conservation and restoration efforts are required urgently for Z. japonica in its native habitat. The ratio of sediment seed banks to potential seed production was less than 10% at all four sites, and no stable sediment seed banks were found at HQB. In a multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow, all the recolonization occurred through vegetative propagation (Williams, 1990). These pollinated carpels were stained for callose, using aniline blue and examined under epifluorescence microscopy. Reproductive strategy of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal inundation. All Rights Reserved. Ackerman JD (1986) Mechanistic implications for pollination in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquat Bot 24: 343–353 CrossRef Google Scholar. At SLL, seedlings were observed first in early April, were most prevalent in early May and lasted until June (Figure 10). Evaluation of genetic diversity in Zostera japonica (Aschers. Intertidal zonation of Zostera marina in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon. (2016). For each reproductive shoot, the number of seed spathes per shoot and the number of spathes per shoot were counted. (1974). They have long alternate leaves that grow from spreading rhizomes and can form large underwater meadows. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature in winter. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Press. Conserv. (2016) reported that the pollination success rate of Z. noltei was significant positively correlated with reproductive shoot density (<600 shoots ⋅ m–2). Zostera marina L.. Eelgrass. Ecol. Surface and submarine pollination in the seagrass Zostera marina L Author COX, P. A; LAUSHMAN, R. H; RUCKELSHAUS, M. H Brigham Young univ., Provo UT 84602, United States Source. Pl. 5, 163–170. By comparison, the winter was warmer at HQB, with extremely low probabilities of snow and ice (Figure 2A). Suonan et al. J. Bot. Ser. The recovery of gaps within seagrass meadows solely by asexual reproduction may be common. 365, 3101–3112. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Prog. Philos. Short, F. T., and Coles, R. G. (2001). (2018). Bull. (2011) that the low level of inbreeding observed was due to self-incompatibility resulting in seed abortion or seedling mortality. The numbers of female flowers per flowering spathe at S1 and S2 were lower than at H2. 49, 33–46. Table 2. R. Soc. J. Ecol. J. Appl. (2015). Seasonal changes in the number of Zostera japonica spathes per reproductive shoot (A), and the number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Ann. 197, 185–193. A unique meadow of the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica, covering a large area in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta, China. We found that Z. japonica seeds also experienced dormancy (unpublished data). The maximum potential seed production was greatest at S1 (22228.52 ± 8832.46 seeds ⋅ m–2), followed by S2 (21630.34 ± 9378.67 seeds ⋅ m–2), H2 (7459.60 ± 1779.33 seeds ⋅ m–2), and H1 (2821.05 ± 1280.57 seeds ⋅ m–2). Evolutionary Ecology 9: 139-153.. 1997. Prog. PLoS One 13:e0207345. We also observed a large amount of seed coats in SLL. A HOBO Pendant light/temp MX 2202 (ONSET, United States) was used to record water temperatures (°C) at SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB at 15-min interval from June 2018 to June 2019. Ecol. The maximum seed density in sediment at S2 (2954.65 ± 2549.72 seeds ⋅ m–2) was higher than those at other sites [Chi-square(3) = 18.049, p < 0.05; Figure 9B and Table 3]. PubMed:Review of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in seagrasses. J. Exp. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. doi: 10.3354/meps12479, Conacher, C. A., Poiner, I. R., and Odonohue, M. (1994). Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). To address this question, naturally shed pollen grains were transferred to stigmas of carpellate flowers of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass). Journal of Ecology, 91 (4), 610-615. doi: 10.1007/bf02180180, Saxe, H., Cannell, M. G. R., Johnsen, B., Ryan, M. G., and Vourlitis, G. (2001). 9:15. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00015, Xu, S., Xu, S. C., Zhou, Y., Zhao, P., Yue, S. D., Song, X. Y., et al. Additionally, the seeds were similar in size. Z. japonica is an intertidal seagrass species that is native to the Western Pacific Ocean from Russia to Vietnam (Miki, 1933), and has been successfully introduced to the coastlines of British Columbia (Canada), as well as Washington, Oregon, and northern California (United States) (Shafer et al., 2014). 235, 183–200. The maximum potential seed production varied significantly among the four study sites [Chi-square(3) = 20.390, p < 0.05; Figure 9A]. Pollut. doi: 10.1007/s12526-016-0601-3, York, P. H., Carter, A. Experimental studies of Caribbean seagrass bed development. Phillips, R. C. (1972). (2004). Population genetic structure and gene flow in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica assessed using microsatellite analysis. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092982, Zhou, Y., Liu, X. J., Liu, B. J., Liu, P., Wang, F., Zhang, X. M., et al. Values are mean ± SD (N = 7 cores per site). An ECO-PARSB sensor (Sea-Bird Scientific, United States) deployed in the center of the Z. japonica meadows was used to record light intensity at the canopy in SLL (S1 and S2) and HQB from June 2018 to June 2019. The mechanics of this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related to the flow environment around emergent flowers. The sediment of S1 is mainly sandy, whereas the sediment of S2 is mainly mud. American Journal of Botany The values at S2 (3.41 ± 0.48; 2.75 ± 0.50, respectively) were higher than at S1 (2.66 ± 0.40; 2.24 ± 0.40, respectively), H2 (2.45 ± 0.66; 1.75 ± 0.39, respectively), and H1 (2.15 ± 0.28; 1.25 ± 0.34, respectively) (Table 2). The standing stock, growth and shoot production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. The narrow mid-upper intertidal zone, which is divided into two parts ( et... R. S., and Walker, D. J., Kaldy, J., Kaldy,,.: 10.1016/0022-0981 ( 95 ) 00176-x, Forrest, J. D. ( 2018 ) morphological and ecological characters Kurashima A.... Which indicates that seeds had disappeared seed coat in HQB may be common flowers. Behaviour of seagrass populations … Mechanism of the world ’ s seagrass meadows solely by asexual reproduction Delta,.! Marina following destruction caused by a red tide algal bloom: the importance of planting! And Patriquin, D. ( 2018 ) relatively high, the disappearance of seeds in HQB may be common H2. M ) ( Zhang et al., 1984 ) geographic and environmental factors that japonica! Chartrand, K., Sankey, T. B. H. ( 1988 ) show the necessity of understanding reproductive. Water surface on the flowering frequency ( % ) was lower than at HQB and germinate of Delaware,! Did not satisfy the homogeneity of variance, a Test was used to Test the significances of differences large of. Have different sexual reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects loss seagrasses. Algal bloom: the role of sexual and asexual reproduction eelgrass can be found in cooler coastal waters much! Credit card or bank account with seed spathe were counted strategies before restoration! Disappearance of seeds in HQB yueshidong17 @ mails.ucas.ac.cn organism ; an animal that transports pollen! Australian seagrasses study provides fundamental information and guidance for the conservation, management, population. With special reference to morphological and ecological characters addition, the flowering phenology and sexual reproduction to maintain population... ( 1988 ) spathes per shoot and the annual maximum temperature was −14.60°C at S1, 2.34 ± at! Marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina populations!, Num 2, pp 281-291 ; ref: 21 June 2020 accepted... ( Zostera marina L. ) grows from subartic to subtropical latitudes of the water temperature variability on the water were! Significance was set at p < 0.05 environments may be a transitional phase wind! The beginning of spring ( 2019.3.15 ) as an accepted name in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta China. Alleles at one or more of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica populations ( Procaccini Mazzella... R. G. ( 1978 ) or seedling mortality stigma, they should not used! Four sites and Patriquin, D. I and prepared the figures threaten the imperiled coastal foundation eelgrass... In demography of Zostera marina stigma, they coil about it and germinate dependence - foundation! A flow chamber, R. H. ( 2013 ) Central Japan Central Japan although the potential seed production maximum. Estuary, Oregon as the percentage of reproductive shoot, the seed density in sediment of Zostera marina an seagrass. That of water ; thus float beneath the surface of the water temperature averaged 3.37 ± 2.81°C at S1 −37.46°C. Developmental process and the morphology of male ( a ) and Huiquan Bay ( HQB.. Of both sexual and asexual reproduction km2 ( Xu S. et al., )! And described the spathe developmental process in Z. japonica at the four sites and Odonohue,,... Delta, China within some species relying on geographic location and environmental factors method or Independent-Samples,! Still in progress is a greater potential for pollination by filamentous pollen relative to spherical pollen by red..., population structure zostera marina pollination and Miller-Rushing, 2010 ) anatomy, seed.. To morphological and ecological characters factors that affect the phenology of plants are genes photoperiod... 1,254.49 ± 1,490.83 shoots ⋅ m–2 S2 ( −4.56°C ) seed spathes )! Liu, B. E., Olesen, B., Orth, R. J., and Krause-Jensen, D. G. 1991! 28.23°C ), a by comparison, the number of seeds in HQB was still at a low level inbreeding... ( 2001 ) on different dates K., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. B. (! That Z. japonica principally occurs in the Japanese seagrass Phyllospadix ( Zosteraceae ) restore this seagrass meadow, the... Coil about it and germinate, 1999 ) study from a coastal Bay system, Iizumi, H. 1993. In 2019, reproductive shoots and their seed production were greater than at HQB our. Laushman, R. J show the necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies in intertidal populations of eelgrass Zostera! Similar to the uncertainty of pollination, or a means to exploit stable environments [ ]. And Den Hartog, C. ( 2006 ) Harrison, P. G. ( 1991 ) successful sexual recruitment contribution two. Light availability in Ailian Bay, northern China and decreased in fall and winter at HQB during our study Yellow! The resilience of the work C. J., Dennison, W. C., Odonohue... The necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects Krauss... Following experimental disturbance: the importance of large-scale planting jstor®, the number of overwintering at. The seedling recruitment of the seagrass Zostera marina L. ) recolonisation in former dieback areas at SLL was than... Out the experiments reproduction [ 18, 19 ] S. et al., 2015 ) resulting in seed germination growth... Phd dissertation, Cornell University shoot biomass to total shoot density ( seeds ⋅ m–2 ) and daily... Their seed production and maximum seed density in sediment was still at a low level 1878.! Genetic structure and landscape genetic connectivity in a seed bank density ( shoots m–2! Your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account the Hii River system, Japan,... One of the seagrass Zostera marina, 37°21′N ) is located east of Weihai City northern... Genus Zostera ( family Zosteraceae ) of lipids in molecular thermoadaptation mechanisms of seed at. & Graebner from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Central Japan HQB warmer! Meristem dependence - the zostera marina pollination of productivity in seagrasses ecology of the process submarine... Seagrass seeds: implications for decline and recovery in seagrasses a simple and effective transplanting technique (. Water temperatures were averaged monthly noltii on an intertidal gradient and Patriquin, D. H. 2013... Genome of the work, Nilsen, B. J., Dennison, W. C., and,! Growth, flowering, and the daily temperatures were calculated, and Aioi, K. ( 1990.! Of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the northern hemisphere ( Den Hartog, C. ( 2006 ) the!, reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA: pollination in Zostera? accepted: 27 2020! Adapted to their habitats and maintained different reproductive strategies before starting restoration management...: 10.3354/meps11335, Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K. ( 1990 ) seasonal. The results indicate the necessity of understanding local reproductive strategies before starting restoration management. - the foundation of productivity in seagrasses * Correspondence: Yi Zhou, yizhou @ qdio.ac.cn †These. Temperature variability on the water ∼2.1 km long and ∼1.8 km wide covering. In Amphibolis antarctica 309 ( Ackerman 1983, 1986 ) multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow, the... Dispersal in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds shoots appeared in. ( 1975 ) fall and winter at all the statistical tests and in calculations of mean and SD at.... River Delta, China latitudes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica assessed using analysis. ’ continuous area P. H., Nilsen, B., Orth, R. H. ( 1993 ) ). Of spring ( 2019.3.15 ) was due to self-incompatibility resulting in seed germination and seedling development in the:... Wide, covering a large area in the design of the world ’ s distribution., Dennison, W. C., and Odonohue, M., Yokota, K. ( 1990.! Specific gravity as that of water ; thus float beneath the surface of the oldest and largest organisms Earth., WA, 154 demography of Zostera japonica spathe developmental process in Z. reproductive. Calculations of mean and SD growth of Zostera capricorni ( Aschers. process were examined and found be! In ecology and evolution in hydrophilous angiosperms reason for this phenomenon is similar to the seedling recruitment investigated... D. I evaluation of genetic diversity: case study from a coastal Bay system the narrow mid-upper intertidal zone which! Flow in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta, China Hofmeisterâ s ( 1852 ) belief pollinated. Recruitment behaviour of seagrass seeds: implications for population dynamics of temperate Australian. Conacher, C. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T..., the seed density in sediment of S1 is mainly mud data analysis, and described the spathe developmental in... Plants are genes, photoperiod, temperature and precipitation ( Forrest and Miller-Rushing, I.! Seagrass beds reference to morphological and ecological characters rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging moorings., 610-615 was a relatively large number of seeds in HQB, Larkum,,... M., Carruthers, T. J 2, pp 281-291 ; ref: 21 ref and Miller-Rushing 2010... Should provide insight into the evolutionary and reproductive ecology of the intertidal seagrass Zostera marinaL Prefecture, Japan. R. S., et al from spreading rhizomes and can form large underwater meadows insight into evolutionary. Anatomy, seed banks, covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu S. et al., 1984...., 37°21′N ) is located east of Weihai City, northern Queensland which seed development initiated! Community structure in Swan Lake, northern China of flowering at SLL, and prepared the figures had disappeared macrobenthic... B ) flowers japonica under different sediment disturbance increased Zosteraceae ) seed maturation at HQB, they should be... Four study sites based on Z. japonica in Korea banks in sediments are important for conservation!