Periodontal disease (PD) is common and increases cardiovascular diseases. endobj This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Janket, A. Wightman, A. E. Baird, T. E. van Dyke, and J. The review indicated a direct association between skeletal and mandibular osteopenia and loss of alveolar crestal height and tooth loss in postmenopausal women. Risk factors including tobacco smoking modify the host response to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [25, 26]. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. B. Lamster and M. J. Novak, “Host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease,”, J. L. Ebersole and D. Cappelli, “Gingival crevicular fluid antibody to, J. L. Ebersole, D. Cappelli, M. N. Sandoval, and M. J. Steffen, “Antigen specificity of serum antibody in, J. L. Ebersole, “Systemic humoral immune responses in periodontal disease,”, W. P. McArthur and W. B. Clark, “Specific antibodies and their potential role in periodontal diseases,”, D. M. Steel and A. S. Whitehead, “The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein,”, T. Nakajima, T. Honda, H. Domon et al., “Periodontitis-associated up-regulation of systemic inflammatory mediator level may increase the risk of coronary heart disease,”. �26S073QI�r � <>>>/Contents 6 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Box, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Despite discrepancy regarding this issue in the scientific literature, it seems that the effect of glycemic control is related to the mode of periodontal therapy [38]. Offenbacher et al. 2014, Article ID 182513, 9 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/182513, 1Dental Health Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Children and adolescents can have any of the several forms of periodontitis such as aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, and periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases [6–8]. Patients with undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 are at higher risk for periodontal disease. B. Novaes Jr., C. A. Meschiari et al., “Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and MMP-9 are increased in chronic periodontal disease and decrease after non-surgical periodontal therapy,”, M. A. Reynolds, “Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease,”, J. F. López-Marcos, S. García-Valle, and Á. 15 0 obj <>stream A. Quyyumi, J. E. Norman et al., “Effects of total pathogen burden on coronary artery disease risk and C-reactive protein levels,”, Y. Nakamura, O. Tagusari, Y. Seike et al., “Prevalence of periodontitis and optimal timing of dental treatment in patients undergoing heart valve surgery,”, J. M. Stein, R. Smeets, S. Reichert et al., “The role of the composite interleukin-1 genotype in the association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction,”, L. S. Geiss, W. H. Herman, M. G. Goldschmid et al., “Surveillance for diabetes mellitus—United States, 1980–1989,”, T. Wu, M. Trevisan, R. J. Genco, J. P. Dorn, K. L. Falkner, and C. T. Sempos, “Periodontal disease and risk of cerebrovascular disease: the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and its follow-up study,”, R. I. Garcia, “No association between ischemic heart disease and periodontitis in women,”, M. Trevisan and J. Dorn, “The relationship between periodontal disease (Pd) and cardiovascular disease (Cvd),”, D. W. Cohen, “Periodontal medicine in the next millennium,”, T. D. Rees and R. A. Levine, “Systematic drugs as a risk factor for periodontal disease initiation and progression,”, R. Akhter, M. A. Hannan, R. Okhubo, and M. Morita, “Relationship between stress factor and periodontal disease in a rural area population in Japan,”, M. Dolic, J. Bailer, H. J. Staehle, and P. Eickholz, “Psychosocial factors as risk indicators of periodontitis,”, R. J. Genco, A. W. Ho, S. G. Grossi, R. G. Dunford, and L. A. Tedesco, “Relationship of stress, distress, and inadequate coping behaviors to periodontal disease,”, A. Johannsen, I. Rydmark, B. Söder, and M. Åsberg, “Gingival inflammation, increased periodontal pocket depth and elevated interleukin-6 in gingival crevicular fluid of depressed women on long-term sick leave,”, A. Johannsen, G. Rylander, B. Söder, and M. Åsberg, “Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and elevated levels of interleukin-6 and cortisol in gingival crevicular fluid from women with stress-related depression and exhaustion,”, M. Aimetti, F. Romano, and F. Nessi, “Microbiologie analysis of periodontal pockets and carotid atheromatous plaques in advanced chronic periodontitis patients,”, A. T. Merchant, W. Pitiphat, B. Ahmed, I. Kawachi, and K. Joshipura, “A prospective study of social support, anger expression and risk of periodontitis in men,”, W. S. Marcenes and A. Sheiham, “The relationship between work stress and oral health status,”, M. E. Moss, J. D. Beck, B. H. Kaplan et al., “Exploratory case-control analysis of psychosocial factors and adult periodontitis,”, J. Suvan, F. D'Aiuto, D. R. Moles, A. Petrie, and N. Donos, “Association between overweight/obesity and periodontitis in adults. Many works in the literature report familial aggregation of periodontal diseases, but due to different terminology, classification systems, and lack of standardized methods of clinical examination, it is difficult to compare reports directly. The risk of stroke was significantly increased by the presence of periodontitis [relative risk 1.63 (1.25, 2.00)]. Severe periodontitis, which may result in tooth loss, is found in 5–20% of most adult populations worldwide [3–5]. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature, Dental Health Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Data. 27 0 obj 12 0 obj This variability in presentation of significant signs of disease makes diagnosis difficult, not only in declaring if a patient suffers from the disease but also in detecting patients who do not suffer from the disease and differentiating between adult and aggressive forms of periodontitis. Many of the studies conducted to date suggest there is a relationship between skeletal osteoporosis and bone loss [75–80] to the extent that postmenopausal osteoporosis may result in dental osteopenia involving the jaws, and particularly the mandible [81]. Risk factors including tobacco smoking modify the host response to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [ 25, 26 ]. endobj <>>>/Contents 18 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Data. 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Bureau, L. Henry, A. Baz, K. Scherrer, and M. Château, “Prosomes (proteasomes) changes during differentiation are related to the type of inducer,”, S. Offenbacher, V. Katz, G. Fertik et al., “Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight,”, H. Baradaran-Rahimi, M. Radvar, H. R. Arab, J. Tavakol-Afshari, and A. R. Ebadian, “Association of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms with generalized aggressive periodontitis in an iranian population,”, R. C. Page, “The role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease,”, G. Greenstein and M. Rethman, “The role of tetracycline-impregnated fibers in retreatment,”, A. M. Marcaccini, A. Cholesterol has long been known to play a crucial role in predicting risk for heart attack in seemingly healthy people. 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