E: [email protected] Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro. Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland, 29 West Farm Court, Broompark, Durham DH7 7RN. Whether it goes by the name dandelion, cankerwort, puffball or lion's tooth, the hundreds of plants in the genus Taraxacum typically have a bad reputation with gardeners. The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. While you're getting started with dandelion identification, there are groups and individuals on social media who will help. BSBI Handbook No. - the length & width of the involucral bracts, their colour (all green, suffused purple, red-tipped, etc. BSBI Handbook number 9, Dandelions of the British Isles (Dudman & Richards 1997) is the standard source of reference. The common yellow dandelion has a long list of powerful healing abilities as well as other health benefits. Dandelion, weedy perennial herb of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae, native to Eurasia but widespread throughout much of temperate North America. Updated April 29, 2020 The majority of dandelions in this country are the Taraxacum officinale species - Wiki suggests there are over 100 species from wikipedia, here are some others: Selected species [ edit] whether erect, spreading, or recurved). Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) - What many consider to be an obnoxious weed is actually a versatile herb that many gardeners enjoy in their herb gardens! The silhouettes in the. Dahlst. Of the nine British sections, Sections Taraxacum, Obliqua and Palustria are all very restricted ecologically and contain very few species. Just by blowing the puffball, the head flies away spreading a couple hundred seeds up to hundred of miles away depending on the wind strength. You can change your mind by clicking a link we put in the emails. Dandelion is a low growing species with a long flowering period from March to October. The Dandelion herb plant grows from a tightly formed rosette and has a deep, twisted tap root that is rather brittle and breaks easily. Plants are best preserved if pressed immediately after collection (i.e. Particularly useful are pictures of involucres in late bud, the attitude of the ligules underneath, and the colour of the outside of the petiole. The most familiar species is T. officinale. The leaves are dark green, long and lance-shaped. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google. The creature gets its name from its resemblance to the 'spent heads' of the dandelion flower, which specifically addresses a Rhodaliidae species called Thermopalia taraxaca, the expert notes. Since 1836, we've been promoting the study, understanding and enjoyment of British and Irish botany. OK, if you need another, ‘dandelion’ is actually a catch-all family name for over 200 micro-species which are found in the UK. Your welcome pack will include a copy of the BSBI Yearbook with full contact details for every single referee, along with notes on the material they require in order to make an identification. It has been found in prehistoric deposits, and is recorded up to 2,700 ft in Britain. You can view Josh's slides here: Richards. We promise not to pass on your details to anyone else. Other names for dandelion … Dandelion – the ubiquitous weed – is a flowering plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. in the field) as the leaves curl very rapidly. In most parts of the world, dandelion is known as weed. Rapid drying is essential if the true colours are to be preserved. Our illustrations are shown to represent the group. There are perhaps 20-30 species which are easily and reliably learnt (e.g. During the Second World War, when coffee was almost unobtainable, a substitute was made from the roasted and ground roots of Dandelions. Leaves must be flattened individually, and heads pressed from the side.  Small leaves and buds in the rosette may be removed. Can be found almost anywhere and at any time of year. Plants should be well-grown, and not from shaded, heavily-trodden, mown or grazed areas, or diseased. Dandelions mostly occur in disturbed habitats such as pastures, roadside verges, lawns, tracks, paths and waste ground. The dandelion could almost be an evergreen plant as it seems to grow year-round — at least whenever the temperature stays above freezing. Taxonomists argue over which species is which. On 25th April, ecologist and BSBI member Josh Styles hosted a free online introductory course to dandelion identification. Alan Punton/A to Z Botanical Collection. Dandelions have many uses including as a diuretic, the blanched leaves can be added to salads, roots are used to make dandelion ‘coffee’ and dandelion wine is made from the flowers. As mentioned above, this introduced European perennial is loaded with medicinal properties. ), and whether bordered. Purslane. They have milky latex, and a basal rosette of leaves, lobed or unlobed. Tim Rich's presentation gives an introduction to dandelion sections and what to look for. There are around three hundred different species and they grow in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America but are also found in most areas of the world including Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Arthur Chater has compiled general advice on collecting and pressing specimens. Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. Dandelion-and-burdock is a popular fizzy drink made in the north of England. Indeed, ecological characters are very significant for, given the habitat or locality, one can expect to find members of certain sections. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. Flowerheads usually yellow, solitary borne on hollow scape (stem). Dandelion seeds will grow everywhere, and they are easy to establish and maintain. The dandelion is back again, doing what it does best: invading. diameter of the head when fully open (usually in sunshine). A perennial with a stout taproot, dandelion is abundant everywhere but prefers chalks and loamy soils above pH 7.0. Phytomedicine 2005;12:588-97. Dandelion is a hardy perennial plant. Dandelion is common in pastures, lawns, orchards, hay fields, waste ground and roadsides. Bright yellow discs of tightly packed florets above a rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by fluffy white seed heads. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. If you are serious about dandelion identification, we recommend that you join BSBI. 2 The leaves of the plant are considered to be very nutritious and can be eaten as a salad or fresh vegetable. Britain has about 240 different species of dandelion, and since I started questioning my wanton destruction of these plants, I have discovered six of them. Telling them apart is a real specialist’s job, and the chances are your wildflower guide won’t even attempt to help you try. The whole plant should be collected (single leaves and heads are not of much use), but specimens should be excised at the top of the root. A presentation given by Tim Rich at the BSBI Recorders' Conference 2018, gives an introduction to collecting dandelion specimens. Dandelion Drinks. T. faeroense (Dahlst.) Contrary to popular belief, this is a beneficial plant to have. The key to the nine Sections in the Handbook, and the key in Stace’s New Flora of the British Isles are essentially identical, and allow some provisional groupings to be made. John Richards, co-author of the BSBI Handbook, has started preparing accounts of all the dandelion species, starting with a selection in section Ruderalia. Dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland: A.A. Dudman & A.J. Registered as a charity in England and Wales (1152954) and Scotland (SC038675) and as a company in England & Wales (8553976). Dandelions have at least two look-a-likes in our area, which can be considered second cousins once, maybe twice, removed from the common dandelion (or what I like to call true dandelion), which is naturalized from Europe. It is said that there are over 250 species of dandelion in existence, though the variety known as “common dandelion” (Taraxacum officinale) is the one that is most likely populating your lawn and garden. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). There are up to two hundred and thirty five micro species of dandelion all lumped under the Taraxacum officinale name. There are around 200 similar microspecies of the Dandelion genus in Britain, which really require an expert to identify them. Leaves produced later will be the ‘summer’ leaves, and are usually larger and not of typical shape. Dandelions look best growing alongside other low growing meadow plants such as Lawn Daisy, Speedwell, Bulbous Buttercup, Self heal, Forget-me-nots, Birdsfoot trefoil, and Cowslips. Field Identification Skills Certificate (FISC), Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, introduction to collecting dandelion specimens, Dandelions (Taraxacum) of Britain and Ireland. The plasticity of dandelions is such that it takes a great deal of experience to learn what a species can ‘do’, and there are a great many of them. Shining like guineas with the sun's warm eye on,We almost think they are gold as we pass,Or fallen stars in a green sea of grass. Although it’s considered to be an invasive weed, these dandelions have value as a medicinal and culinary herb. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. BSBI members have exclusive access to a network of 100+ expert referees for difficult plant groups. For anyone who is serious about identifying dandelions, there is no substitute for developing a comprehensive herbarium of well-preserved material named by a recognised authority who is going to want to see specimens that have been carefully selected in the field and pressed for later reference. There are several fun and interesting dandelion facts that shed light on different aspects of this plant. Beginning with this image of a lush dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), we can see lots of flower heads and a number of new heads forming, along with some closed heads which bloomed recently. 9. Please note that each and every hedgerow item you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. Dandelion is said to be one of the five bitter herbs that Jews were required to eat during the Feast of Passover. The BSBI is for everyone who cares about the wild plants of Britain and Ireland. Even then, be prepared not to name a substantial proportion of material. Dandelions are quite resilient and, as such, … Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ). Contact Josh on Twitter with your dandelion enquiries. An excellent way to absorb dandelion’s vitamins A, C, B, and K is to create a standard decoction of the root.. We usually send them once a month. I hope to discover more. New Year Plant Hunt goes ahead in 2021 but you MUST stay safe! Dandelion inhabits different habitats that provide enough sunlight: meadows, grasslands, edges of the forests, gardens and lawns. Many different things have to be taken into account. 1 Dandelion root has also traditionally been used to make a coffee substitute. Highly Nutritious. by Dave Walker, UK One of the pleasures of studying the macroscopic and microscopic world, is that even the most common plants can provide a wealth of interesting features when viewed in 'close-up'. Scientific name: Taraxacum officinale. T. lacistophyllum, T. rubicundum, T. argutum, T. inopinatum, T. faeroense, T. euryphyllum, T. pseudolarssonii, T. luteum, T. unguilobum, T. nordstedtii, T. bracteatum, T. subbracteatum, T. hamatum, T. pseudohamatum, T. exacutum, T. ancistrolobum, etc.). Conversely, the presence of some sections says a lot about the quality of the habitat! Dandelion is a flowering plant that belongs to the family Asteraceae. Gardeners curse them for the stubborn taproot and the many seeds that are so easily dispersed. The dandelion species is not easy to contain. They grow wild all over Europe, the US and Asia. The flowers are followed by the familiar fluffy seed-heads often referred to as ‘clocks’. Digital images to accompany specimens can markedly enhance their value as characters lost or obscured by pressing can be assessed and pictures should be taken at the time of collection. The plasticity of dandelions is such that it takes a great deal of experience to learn what a species can ‘… An Introduction to Dandelions or watch the presentation on YouTube. View abstract. dandelion. In the Language of Flowers, Dandelion stands for faithfulness and happiness. Privacy & data protection | Safeguarding policy This will mean a change of paper at least once a day, preferably twice, and the press near a source of gentle heat (e.g. Share on Pinterest. Commonly considered a weed, young dandelions provide excellent salad leaves (though larger, older leaves become bitter). It may be that the Dandelion you see most often is Taraxacum officinale, the Common Dandelion, however there are more than 230 species of Dandelion in the UK and the differences between them are small and very complex.. It attracted 305 participants. The BSBI's expert referee for dandelions has more than 50 years experience of studying and identifying these difficult plants. Bright yellow discs of tightly packed florets above a rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by fluffy white seed heads. Dandelion Varieties. Tim Rich has set out a few Taraxacum dos and don'ts to help you get started, but if you're only just beginning to identify wild plants, we'd suggest that you get some of the more user-friendly genera under your belt first, before you start tackling dandelions. (three endemics are present in Shetland and one on St Kilda). Together with Hieracium (hawkweeds) and Rubus (blackberries), Taraxacum  is probably the most challenging genus that British and Irish botanists encounter. If possible include both flowering and fruiting heads (especially Sect. It was reported that by 1672, the plant was well established in New England . In terms of nutritional content, the dandelion patch in your … From French dent-de-lion (“lion's tooth”), also in Late Latin dēns leōnis. Both species are edible in their entirety. If leaves become curled and flaccid, the whole plant may be immersed in water for up to 24 hours until it is again fully turgid. The yello… The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g… Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along roadsides, in meadows, along riverbanks, and of course, in lawns. It is not possible to identify a Dandelion to species from a single photograph. Section Spectabilia includes one common and widespread but very plastic species viz. Everyone knows what a dandelion looks like, but did you know that there are c250 species of dandelion recorded in Britain & Ireland? Tim Rich has set out a few Taraxacum dos and don'ts to help you get started, but if you're only just beginning to identify wild plants, we'd suggest that you get some of the more user-friendly genera under your belt first, before you start tackling dandelions. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), was named after the French dent de lion, meaning lion’s tooth, which refers to its toothed leaves. petiole colour, midrib colour (underneath). the attitude and dimensions of the outer involucral bracts (i.e. T: 07725 862 957 The term has since died out in French (except in Swiss French), but compare Spanish diente de león, Portuguese dente-de-leão, Italian dente di leone, German Löwenzahn, Norwegian Bokmål løvetann, all descendants or loan translations of the Latin term. It is then easily pressed (after gently shaking to remove excess water), but additional changes of drying paper are required. Taraxacum officinale, dandelion’s botanical name, has been derived from some Greek words referring to the medicinal characteristics of this species. Pollinators love them for the nectar and pollen they provide early in the year. Collect until mid-late flowering period only. If you are harvesting the roots in spring, keep in mind that they are less medicinally active than if you were harvesting them in fall. Purslane can often be found in moist garden beds, lawns, and shady areas, where it lies … A thorough study of one’s local ‘patch’ might eventually yield 80-100 species, and casual introductions from elsewhere in Europe are always a possibility. a radiator). Our enquiries email and phone line are open Monday to Friday, 10am - 7pm. It's best to examine only well-grown, typical individuals just before and during early flowering (a window of about a month, although this extends with increasing altitude). Common Types of Dandelion Plants. Dandelion seeds reveal newly discovered form of natural flight: Why the plant is among the best fliers in the natural world. A favourite food of pet rabbits and guinea pigs, Dandelion leaves may also be added to salads to add an extra, slightly bitter flavour. By its nature, the sectional division of Taraxacum produces much more “fuzzy” categories than the species or genus, hence the sections must be keyed out using as many characters as possible, including ecological ones. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. The plants are perennial and have a long tap root. It’s a great companion plant for gardening because it’s long taproot brings up nutrients to the shallow-rooting plants in the garden adding minerals and nitrogen to the soil. leaf colour (shade of green), and whether blotched or spotted. Images should be numbered with the collecting number. Common dandelion. Dandelions are widespread and stable throughout the British Isles. There are around 30 species of dandelion that can be found all over the world. Section Hamata appears to be a fairly homogeneous group but it has affinities with Section Celtica and, in certain cases, some species could fit fairly happily into either section. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale A common sight in spring, these bright yellow wild flowers can look quite exotic and the fluffy seed heads that follow are delicate and ethereal. Taraxacum is found throughout the British Isles and over 200 microspecies has been identified. Sign up here to receive emails about plants and Plantlife’s work. A grass meadow in Spring beautified by thousands of dandelions. Together with Hieracium (hawkweeds) and Rubus (blackberries), Taraxacum is probably the most challenging genus that British and Irish botanists encounter. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this genus.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species … The other three largely native sections, Sections Naevosa, Celtica and Erythrosperma each contain substantial numbers of species.  Of the more ‘weedy’ sections with many casuals and likely introductions, Section Ruderalia contains about half the known species in Britain. Also known as lion's tooth, priest's crown, swine's snout, fairy clock and pissenlit (pee-the-bed). ScienceDaily . a common wild flower - the dandelion. Dandelion could almost be an invasive weed, young dandelions provide excellent salad leaves ( though,. Length & width of the world be flattened individually, and a basal rosette of jaggedly toothed are! Pissenlit ( pee-the-bed ) and not of typical shape, swine 's snout, fairy and. Above a rosette of jaggedly toothed leaves are followed by fluffy white seed heads years experience studying. 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